The settlements are located in the landscape, they are rooted in the geographical environment surrounding us, this is the basis of their image. The settlement is formed by people who appear in the landscape, shaped it over a long period of historical epochs. Their features reflect the stylistic features and trends of different eras, thanks to which each settlement becomes unique. In this image manual, we try to clarify the architectural heritage of Magyaregregy and the recommendations related to them. The village, located in a picturesque mecsek environment, has a relatively uniform image. Based on its established street network and built-up area, we can find typical village elements on its territory. Its uniqueness is further enhanced by the Márévár ruin and the beach belonging to it. Its image features are shaped by the surrounding landscape, patterns, forms, customs and traditions characteristic of the settlement to this day.
The purpose of the handbook is to guide the community so that it has something to rely on in shaping the image of the settlement in the future. The preservation of traditions is important, as we live in a changing world where old legacies, customs and traditions are rapidly dwindling, so we need to show direction on how to preserve and include these values in further developments. By exploring the image of the settlement and presenting its peculiarities, he intends to formulate recommendations on how the inhabitants of Magyaregregy can be proud of their built environment and how they can consciously shape it, while preserving local values.
About Magyaregregy in brief
Magyaregregy is a village in the northern part of Baranya county, in the area of Hegyháti district. The settlement is relatively easy to reach, as it can be reached from Pécs, Komló and Dombóvár, as well as from the direction of Bonyhád in Tolna County. Magyaregregy is located "halfway" between Pécs and Dombóvár, 30-32 km from both settlements. The settlement can only be reached by road, it has no railway line. It follows that the settlement belongs to the morphological type of roadside village with a strip plot.
The population of the village was 745 as of January 1, 2017. The maximum population of Magyaregregy was in 1910 with 1333 people, and from 1941 onwards a permanent but slow-paced population decline can be observed. It reached its minimum in 2015 with 726 people. Based on its population, it belongs to the ranks of medium-sized villages. It has a total area of 2680.90 ha, of which only 81.25
if the interior.
Magyaregregy is located in a beautiful natural environment, on the northern edge of the Eastern Mecsek. The settlement stretches along the valley of the Valley Creek, and in its immediate vicinity there is also a nature reserve, the characteristic plants of which are lapu leaves and peonies. The surrounding hills are on average 300-350 meters, among which the Gypsy Mountain lookout tower stands out with its height of 523 meters. The village is about 400 meters wide and 2 km long in the valley, so the main road is also in the N-D direction. In the past, babinahegy near the village was subject to intensive viticulture, thanks to the loessy soil, which is excellent for agricultural production. The soils, however, are largely brown forest soils, which is possible due to the surrounding forested areas. Nowadays, closed garden cultivation is carried out in the area, for which the most common branches are arable land and lawn.
The area around the settlement was already inhabited in Roman times, for which several certified evidence and archaeological finds have been found. Its name comes from the word "alder", which can refer to a place overgrown with alder trees. Later, during the Turkish occupation, it was a continuously populated area, in addition, the Márévár also served military purposes at that time. At the beginning of the Ottoman period it had a population of 200-300 people, and in 1554 the village was already referred to as Aréz. In the 17th century, the inhabitants were engaged in viticulture, grain cultivation and animal husbandry. The settlement is still characterized by forestry to this day. The forests used to be the property of the Bishop of Pécs, later they were transferred to the Mecsek Forest Farm.
The map of the First Military Survey clearly shows that there were two Egres: one was a Hungarian settlement, the má-sik was a German settlement.
At the turn of the 18th-19th centuries, Germans settled here, and in just a couple of decades they made up a third of the population. At the beginning of the century, smaller coal mines were opened on the outskirts of the village, which provided a livelihood for many people, so the population of the settlement also began to grow. At that time, intensive fruit growing was also taking place on the territory of the village.
Currently, 85.7% of the Hungarian population is made up of Gypsies, Germans, Croats, Romanians and other non-ethnic Hungarians. Its religious composition is characterized by the predominance of Roman Catholics, but lutherans and calvinists also live here.
Currently, there are more than 10 guesthouses and a campsite on the territory of the village. All this ensures a peaceful rest for those who like rural tourism, and active recreation can also take place in the surrounding forests. In terms of its sights, it can be said that the most famous are the Márévár ruins and the Arnold House, that is, the building complex of the old butchery.
Magyaregregy belongs to the small region of the Baranyai Hills. It lies in the northern part of Baranya County, it is also called the Gate of the Mecsek. The settlement was built on the men-tes of the Valley Creek, which is wedged into the Eastern Mecsek. It is surrounded by hills lined with valleys. The watershed of the area is the Völgység stream, into which several streams flowing down from the Mecsek (Kisvaszari-vf., Angyula-welli-tributary) flow. The surface is covered with clay-washed brown forest soil formed on loess sediments. On the slopes there is a high risk of erosion, derasion-erosion valleys divide the settlement.
Based on plant geography, it belongs to the Pécs flora district (Sopianicum). The most significant part of the settlement is covered by forests, part of it is made up of planted farms containing non-native species (acacias, woodlands and black pines, blackbirds, noble birches). In the fruit-set stands there are forest associations typical of the Mecsek: silver linden beech and hornbeam-oak (stemless primrose – Primula vulgaris, liverwort – Hepatica nobi-lis, wolf bush – Daphne mezereum), extrazonal beech forests, gorge forests (red honeysuckle flower – Silene dioica, red fern – Phyllitis scolopendrium, ornamental and lobed kidney fern – Polystichum setiferum, P. acuelatum, shield species – Dryopteris spp.), lime-loving and lime-avoiding oaks, shrub-oaks, in smaller patches they are moth-covered oaks.
Along the watercourse there are streamside associations: alder groves, highlanders, mo-csárréts and tall ridges. There is also a red acsalapu (Petasites hybridus) along the Valley Creek. Armenian root (Inula helenium) is common in swamp meadows, and in grazed grasslands it is not uncommon to see St. Ladislaus gentian (Gentiana cruciata). In forests containing native tree species, the submediterranean and Balkan trees are the sign-lems. On the hillsides there are fresh mowers, pastures unadorned.
Landscape type, landscape structure, landscape character
The landscape structure of Magyaregregy consists of the totality of territorial, vo-nalas and point-like landscape elements, which gives a mosaic picture. Its landscape elements are defined by the topography and land use. Unfortunately, the historical use of landscapes can only be seen in traces as pastures are abandoned, just as the close-to-nature forests of the hilltops have become plantations. In the valleys, traces of swampy, seasonal watercourses remained along the watercourses, these are mostly arable land. Scrubbing of hillsides is characteristic as a result of the abandonment of pastures.
The landscape structure is also shaped by land use, which can be classified into the following types of landscapes in Magyaregregy: productive landscape (including field, forest, lawn, garden), residential landscape, holiday landscape. Its landscape was shaped by its distinctive natural elements, the web of farming and popular culture. The historical maps clearly trace the process by which the forests were largely reduced, first from the lower and then partly from the higher ones, and their place was taken by arable land, gardens and vineyards.
Areas protected by natural protection
These areas are land use areas limited by conservation priorities. The priorities are: landscape conservation, nature conservation, water protection. The purpose of farming on their territory is to protect natural goods (soil, water, plants, animals). The prescribes of the Law on the Protection of Nature are decisive in the use of these areas.
Magyaregregy is part of the National Ecological Network, the East-Mecsek Landscape Protection Area, Natura 2000 sites, landscape protection areas, ex lege protected areas can be found within its administrative boundaries.
The area of the East-Mecsek Landscape Protection District was protected by the decision of the President of the National Nature Conservation Office No. 8/1977 OTvH. The area of the East-Mecsek Landscape Protection District is covered by the 10/1993 (III.9.) KTM decreed it expanded. The reason and purpose of the conservation is to preserve the karst processes and forms characteristic of the area, as well as the life communities characteristic of the limestone gorges of Mecsek, to preserve the living conditions of the protected plant species and the related animal communities, our geological, hydrological, landscape and cultural history values. Part of the protected and specially protected area of the landscape protection area falls on the territory of the tele-põs. The Act on the Protection of Nature describes the rules and restrictions for protected areas, the manager of the area has prepared a management plan of the Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, which provides for the maintenance and management in detail.
Sites of European Community importance for nature conservation purposes A 275/2004. (X.8.) Government Decree on areas of European Community importance for nature conservation purposes, the exact delimitation is 14/2010. (V.11.) KvVM published in decree. The purpose of designating and maintaining Natura 2000 sites is to preserve, maintain and restore the favourable conservation status of the habitat types located on them, as well as to provide the conditions for their proper management. In these areas, activities which do not jeopardise or prejudice the attainment of the objectives of the reservation and which comply with a final authorisation may be carried out without restriction. It shall be prohibited to engage in activities or investments in such areas as to impede the achievement of the site's conservation objectives without a permit or in any way other than permit. In Natura 2000 sites that are not protected areas, only activities subject to compulsory gentry may be carried out. In these areas, the enge-south of the conservation authority is necessary for breaking up the lawn, oversowing it, turning it into a tree plantation, restoring the area, planting and felling trees, groups of trees, trees on wooded pastures not covered by the Forest Act, and conducting community and mass sports with the participation of more than a hundred people. Before authorising an investment that is not for the conservation management of a Natura 2000 site, an impact assessment must be carried out.